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THE REVISED CHRONOLOGY

(A Colored Chart version of this table)

New Theses for the Reconstruction of Ancient History based upon the Recurrent Cyclic Perturbations of the Earth prior to 648 BC

Based upon the cyclic perturbations of the earth every 53/54 years caused by catastrophic celestial events, some new theses for the reconstruction of ancient history are presented. The following introductory comments apply:

1) The dates used here are those commonly accepted by modern historians, based upon the record of the 763 BC [sic] eclipse [sic] of the sun [sic] in the limmu lists of Assyria. It is somewhat doubtful whether this event was, as claimed, a total eclipse of the sun, but to revert to older chronologies based largely on the Masoretic Texts of the Bible would, at this stage, be too cumbersome. While the actual dates are probably wrong, this in no way invalidates the relative periodicity which remains correct, i.e. 53/54 years between occurrences.

2) It is possible that the actual cycle involved "revisitations" every 13+ years (hence the superstition) with greater effects, both visual and physical, occurring every fourth cycle, i.e. every 53/54 years, but for the sake of brevity we will omit some of the interim events except where crucially important (e.g. the 13+ year period between the destruction of Jericho and the "standing still of the sun" 1412/1399 BC).

3) The following theses are by no means complete and are meant to provide only a skeleton on which the true flesh of history can be built without anachronisms, so-called "dark ages," and ad hoc explanations which permeate much of the presently accepted history.

4) Warning: Following Rowton, the average reign lengths of Assyrian kings from Assur-Nirari I (c. 1550 BC) to Assuruballit 11 (606 BC), based on 56 kings in 944 years, approximately, yields a figure of 16.857 years. A confirmation of this total is found in the average reign length of English kings and queens from 1066 AD to the present, an average reign length of slightly over 22 years; this is to be expected, taking into account the differences of conditions in both time and location. Any extended time length in this period which contains numbers of rulers with reign lengths considerably longer than the Assyrian average should be looked upon with the gravest suspicion. Hence, bringing down an absolute date (e.g. of Hammurabi) has to start with a close look at the inflated reign lengths of the kings who followed.

648 BC: The final catastrophe of the series.

(1) The falling fire and famine in Arabia at the time of Ashurbanipal.

(2) The "moon eclipse" of the Prince of Amurru causing an evil disturbance.

(3) The "omen" or "lack of omen" of Takelot If in his fifteenth year.

(4) The flood of Shoshenq III after possibly the same event in his fifteenth year.

-King Osorkon, Usermare Setepenamon Si-ese, also refers to a great flood.

701 BC

(1) The destruction of Sennecherib's army.

(2) The flood of Tirhaka (possibly 13+ years later, but unlikely).

-Pharaoh So at the time of Hosea ' therefore Shoshenq I the first ruler of an Assyrian Dynasty (not Libyan) put in place at the time of the invasion of Tiglathpileser III under his Governor Idi-Bi'ilu.

-Hence the Shoshenq Prince of Me in the Piankhy Stela is the man installed by the Assyrians.

754/755 BC

(1) The earthquake of Uzziah, plus leprosy.

(2) The leprosy at the time of Bocchoris/Bakenranef.

(3) Ashur Dan III epidemic of plague.

(4) End of Iron Age IIB.

-It is possible that the Olympic games were instituted at this time (not 776 BC). It is interesting to note that the so-called 160-year cycle connected to this event is exactly 3 x 53154.

-Time of King Pedubast I of Egypt.

-Sixth year of Pedubast, therefore twentieth year of Psusennes I / Amenemope era.

-Era of foundation of Rome, at which time the sun was disrupted.

-Blood rained in the city and plague was rampant during reign of Romulus.

-If the quotation "his death occurred in the 54th year of his age" refers to the time from the founding of Rome, it was a time of "thunder and lightning"; if from the time of his birth, this also was a time of "omens."

808 BC

(1) The defeat of Joash and the restoration of the Temple.

(2) The end of Troy VII(b)ii in conflagration.

(3) The end Of Iron Age IIA.

862 BC

(1) The famine at the time of Ahab.

(2) Terror of Jehovah in Judah.

(3) End of Iron Age 1.

(4) End of Troy VII(b)i.

(5) Destruction of the army of Ben Hadad of Aram.

(6) Confusion in Babylon under Nabu-Apal-Iddina.

-Some years earlier Wen-Amun under Ramesses XI visits Zikerbaal/Sicharbus of Byblos, first husband of Elissa, future founder of Carthage.

915 BC

(1) God smote Jeroboam.

(2) The Dorian invasion.

(3) The end of Troy VII(la).

(4) The end of Late Bronze IIB and start of the Iron Age.

(5) The end of the Hittite Empire.

(6) The end of Late Ugarit 111.

(7) Destruction layers very widespread, including Boghazkoy, Tarsos, Byblos, Megiddo, Beth Shan, Tel Hesis, Mirsin, Miletus, Carchemish, and Kition.

-13+ years later Asa defeats Zerah the Cushite/King's son of Kush, commander of the army, high priest of Amun, Amenhotep, under Ramesses IX.

-Some years earlier Shishak/Ramesses III takes the treasures from the Temple in Jerusalem.

-Some years earlier Ramesses III invaded by the so-called "Sea Peoples," including the Peleset, Tjekker, and Danu, identified as the Philistines, the tribe of Asher, and the tribe of Dan.

969 BC

(1) The King David pestilence.

(2) Stimulation to build the Temple in Jerusalem.

(3) Famine in Israel the subject of the Stela of Merneptah, Father-in-law of Solomon, "Israel without seed."

(4) Bad omens observed under Nabu-Mukin-Apli in Babylon.

(5) The Trojan War, Troy VI(h.) destroyed by earthquake.

1022 BC

(1) David's early days, Psalmic catastrophes.

(2) End of Late Bronze IIA.

(3) End of Late Palace period.

(4) Heraclean sack of Troy; Jason and the Argonauts.

(5) Fire in the sky at time of Simbar-Sihu of Babylon.

(6) El Amarna period ends.

(7) Widespread destruction layers including Boghazkoy, Tarsos, Mirsin, Beth Shan, Megiddo, Alalakh, Tel Hesi, Beth Shemesh, Lachish, Ashkelon, Late Ugarit 11. Chagar Bazar and Tell Brak abandoned.

1076 BC

(1) Samuel catastrophe.

(2) Akhenaten stimulus.

(3) Cause of famine during El Amarna period.

(4) Cause of chaos after rule of Tiglathpileser I.

1129 BC

(1) Aud/Gideon catastrophe.

(2) Ruth famine here or 1238 BC

(3) End of Late Bronze I.

1185 BC

(1) Deborah catastrophe.

(2) "New Moon" festival in twenty-third year of Thutmose 111.

(3) Santorini/Thera eruption.

(4) End of Middle Bronze IIC, MMIII, and MH periods.

(5) Very widespread destruction, including Alaca Huyuk, Boghazkoy, Alishar, Lachish, Mirsin, Knossos, HAZOT, Beitin, Tell Duweir, etc.

1238 BC

(1) Ehud era.

(2) Ruth famine here or II 29 BC (Elimech's sons married daughters of King Eglon of Moab.)

(3) Earthquake at the time of Shalmanezer 1.

1292 BC

(1) Othniel as Judge/time of Mitanni strength.

(2) End of Middle Bronze IIB.

(3) Founding of Mycenae by "Perseus."

(4) Expulsion of the Hyksos.

1345 BC

(1) Kenaz catastrophe striking the Amorites blind.

(2) Hyksos in Egypt.

1399 BC

(1) Joshua catastrophe, stones from heaven, "The sun stands still."

(2) Danae land in Greece.

(3) End of Early Bronze IV/Middle Bronze 1.

-The destruction layers found in this period can only be distinguished from those created 13+ and 53/54 years later if more than one destruction occurred at any one site or by historiographical evidence (see 1452 BC).

-13+ years earlier Jericho and other sites were destroyed by earthquake and the invading Israelites.

1452 BC

(1) The Exodus catastrophes at the time of Kha-Ankh-Ra of the Thirteenth Dynasty.

(2) Troy VI founded by "Dardanus."

(3) Athens founded by "Cecrops."

(4) Early Bronze III ends.

(5) Widespread destruction layers found extensively, including Alaca Huyuk, Tarsos, Ugarit, Byblos, Megiddo, Tel Hesi, Mirsin, Chagar Bazar, Tepe Hissar, etc. -Period of the Mari letters, describing marauding Benjaminites and Rabbites (from the tribe of Reubin) during the period of "wandering."

1560 BC

(1) Famine during Sesostris Ill.

(2) Start of Babylon 1.

(3) Emperor Kuei's three suns.

1614 BC

(1) Emperor Chin's ten suns.

1667 BC

(1) Famine of Joseph at the time of Sesostris

1. Yufni of Dynasty XIII?

(2) End of Ur 111.

(3) Start of Isin and Larsa Dynasties.

1722 BC

(1) Jacob catastrophic events.

(2) Famines of First Intermediate period of Egypt.

-Guti Dynasty ends just before this date

1775 BC

(1) Isaac famine.

(2) End of Early Bronze II.

(3) End of Akkad, at time of Naram Sin.

(4) End of Old Kingdom and Dynasty II contemporaneous with it.

(5) Start of Ur III.

(6) Extremely widespread destruction layers observed, including Troy, Alaca Huyuk, Boghazkoy, Alishar, Tarsos, Ugarit, Byblos, Beth Shean, Tepe Hissor, and over 350 others, world-wide.

-Kassite Dynasty of Babylon starts just after this date.

1828 BC

(1) Sodom and Gomorrah catastrophes.

(2) Catastrophe of Sargon's daughter.

(3) Sethenes' milk and honey in the Nile.

(4) The Guti invade.

1882 BC

(1) Abraham famine and descent into Egypt.

(2) Famine of Unis.

(3) Start of dynasty of Akkad.

1936 BC

(1) Catastrophes at the time of Abraham's birth.

-Time of Agga of Kish/Nimrod, son of Cush.

(2) Beothis' earthquake, Dynasty II in Egypt.

1990 BC

(1) Tower of Babel catastrophe.

(2) Semempes catastrophe in Egypt.

2043 BC

(1) Uenephes famine in Egypt.

2151 BC

(1) Djoser famine in Egypt.

2258 BC

(1) Peleg dispersion.

(2) The start of Dynasty I of Egypt by Mena/Menes/Khasekhemui.

3 BC

"Expecting the 'Day of the Lord'"

(c)Michael S. Sanders October 1985

Irvine, California

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